|5 March 2021||Contract & Consultant||Puntland, Somalia||Full Time||Care International|
|Terms of reference for Consultancy to support MoEHE on Puntland Education Sector Analysis (ESA) and the development of a Five year Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP 2022-2026)|
Somalia has some of the lowest development and humanitarian indicators in the world, and inequalities across different social groups are a major driver of conflict. The absence of central governance during the civil war has seen the northern part of Somalia split into autonomous and semi-autonomous regions: the internationally unrecognized autonomous state of Somaliland and the semi-autonomous state of Puntland. Puntland has been relatively stable over the last decade, thereby allowing for a stronger emphasis on building governance and rule of law, as well as enabling it to establish political and administrative institutions. The Puntland state of Somalia had managed to undertake a democratic transfer of political power and is characterized by an administration dedicated to the provision of critical basic social services, presence of an active civil society, and a growing private enterprise community.
Somalia, with the longest running humanitarian crisis lasting for over 2 decades, is one of the poorest countries in the world, with a Gross Domestic Product of US$220 per capita. It is reported that 82% of the population in Somalia is multi-dimensionally poor, and 43% of its population lives on less than US$1 per day. As to OCHA humanitarian Bulletin report, as of February 2015, 1.1 million people out of the total estimated Somali population of 12.3 million are IDPs and of these 130,000 are settled in Puntland. Furthermore, the majority of the population is pastoral or agro-pastoral, with 52% of the population having nomadic livelihoods. 60% of employment opportunities revolve around livestock, frankincense production and fishing. Other sources of income for many households in Puntland are remittances from the diaspora community. Contributions from the diaspora not only benefit household incomes, but also significantly contribute to service provision in and around towns. It is quite common to see schools and mosques built courtesy of diaspora contributions.
Following the fall of the Siad Barre government in 1991 and the onset of the civil war in Somalia, the semi-autonomous state of Puntland formed its regional administration on May 5, 1998, bringing together the Bari, Nugaal and Northern Mudug regions as well as areas of Sool and Sanaag. The Puntland State consists of the following seven regions: – Bari, Nugal, Mudug, Sanaag Sool, Ayn,Highland, Gardafuu and Karkaar with its main city at Garowe. While Puntland has since joined the Federal Government of Somalia, formed in 2012, public systems continued to be managed directly by state institutions. Puntland has experienced relative stability during the past five years, although conflicts in contested areas with Somaliland, inter-clan clashes and attacks by armed militants have taken place, including a severe escalation of border clashes in 2018-2019. The livestock sector dominates the economy of the Puntland regions and livelihoods of the population. Hence, the economy of Puntland is largely dependent on livestock exports, which contribute to approximately 80% of foreign exchange earnings, 40% of the GDP and 60% of employment opportunities. The fishing industry is ranked as the second highest income earner for the population of Puntland, after livestock while remittance from the diaspora also plays a major role in the economy. The state was heavily affected by the 2017 drought, resulting in large scale displacement and nearly $1 billion in economic losses, 51% of which in the livestock and agriculture sectors , with a devastating impact among the estimated 40% of the population formed by pastoralists . At the moment, much of Puntland is facing acute food insecurity (IPC 3), aggravated by an ongoing second wave of COVID-19 infections; the economic impact of the pandemic, including the reduction in remittances and livestock exports to Gulf countries; below average rainfall, locust swarms and the devastating impact of cyclone Gati in Bari, affecting an estimated 180,000 people.
The education system is managed directly by the State’s Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MOEHE). Despite the fragility of the context, Puntland’s education system has experienced substantial development, including strengthening of local institutions and a substantial expansion of access to primary education. The primary gross enrolment rate (GER) has is steadily increasing, from 55% in 2015 to 64% in 2019, although the reduction in the gender gap was far more limited (one percentage point) and the gender parity index remains substantially low, at 0.81 for primary and 0.68b for secondary. The overall primary school enrolment increased by 25% during the same period. On the other hand, while new schools have been constructed, the closure of other schools and insecurity resulted only in a modest increase of the overall number (from 653 in 2016 to 658 in 2019).
Puntland has met its ESSP targets for hiring and training new teachers. The number of primary school teachers has increased by 12%, from 4,310 in 2016 to 4,806 in 2019. A total of 690 teachers have received training, surpassing the ESSP target of 500. Additional GPE funding under the Maximum Country Allocation (MCA) is being allocated to support teacher training as well. Puntland’s Garowe Teacher Education College (GTEC) provides in-service and pre-service training to primary and secondary teachers. The increased enrolment maintained the pupil-teacher ratio at 33 despite the addition of new teachers, however. Access to learning materials remains a challenge, although the GPE’s MCA will provide nearly 900,000 additional textbooks until 2023.
As of 2018, the state government invested 4.4% of its budget in the education sector, well below the 8% target in the Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP). Despite funding challenges, the MOEHE has been moderately successful in strengthening decentralized services at regional and district levels, and over 1,381 Community Education Committee members have been trained. The Ministry has a Gender Unit and Gender Focal Points in all regions. The longitudinal study conducted by the Somali Girls’ Education Promotion Project-Transition (SOMGEP-T), funded by the UK Government and implemented in rural and remote primary schools, found that female students in Puntland had consistently greater gains in numeracy and Somali literacy than their peers in other states, suggesting that progress on learning is being observed even among vulnerable populations such as pastoralists. The sector has expanded the coverage and capacity of the Education Management Information System (EMIS), having systematically released annual reports, although data is not available for all subsectors.
Puntland has been heavily affected by COVID-19, with 1,101 cases identified as of November 21, 2020 and ongoing outbreaks in eight regions. Schools remained closed between March and August 2020, resulting in potential learning losses and increased dropout rates in 2020-21. On July 2020, the MOEHE launched a remote education program using UNICEF’s learning passport platform to offer classes to primary students. Furthermore, the combination of crises faced by families and teachers is having a negative impact on students’ mental health; a study conducted in July 2020 found that 9% of the girls assessed in rural and remote areas of Puntland reported severe anxiety on a daily, weekly or monthly basis, with 4% reporting the same for depression, with a potential midterm impact on learning, retention and transition rates.
The GPE through the Education Sector Plan Development Grant (ESPDG) plans to support the Puntland Government in ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education for all by building stronger education systems for achieving improvements in education equity and learning as outlined in its Strategic Plan 2020. The previous Puntland Education Sector Analysis 2012 -2016 has expired while the Education Sector Strategic plan 2017-2021 expires in December 2021. It’s for this reason, the Puntland Government seeks the services of a consultant to support them in conducting Education Sector Analysis-ESA, and developing an Education Sector Strategic Plan 2022-2026 (ESSP).
The overall objective of this consultancy is (a) Conduct a comprehensive Education Sector Analysis of the context, challenges and opportunities across the sector; (b) Prepare and develop a Five-year Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP 2022-2026).
The purpose of this consultancy is to facilitate, in cooperation and partnership with the MoE & HE, a comprehensive ESA which sheds light on reform options, including an assessment of the realization of 2017 -2021 ESSP to draw lessons learnt, identify areas for change, and successes and achievements to build on, and innovations to be introduced. The result of the education sector analysis and assessment of the current ESSP 2017-2021 will feed into the expansion/development of a new Five Years Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP) for 2022 -2026. Being a very consultative and participatory process, the consultant will work closely with the MoE & HE and the Education Sector Committee and other education stakeholders including Ministries of Finance-MoF and Planning-MoPIC. The process should be geared towards ensuring local ownership and building the capacity of the MoE & HE for future sustainability, and increased capacity to carry out similar actions in the future.
The consultant will support the MoE & HE in the coordination, preparation, design and facilitation of the ESA as well as the development of the ESSP 2021–2026 (including the financial and costing plan as well as the monitoring and evaluation framework). The consultant will work in close partnership with the MoE & HE of Puntland, the Education Sector Committee and development partners. The specific tasks are as follows;
The consultant will work closely with CARE Somalia team members, CARE US technical team members, the National Coordinator and Deputy National Coordinator from the MoE & HE in providing the following support;
The consultants will work closely with CARE SOM team members, CARE US technical teams, the National Coordinator and Deputy National Coordinator, Director of Policy and Planning Department from the MoE & HE in providing the following support;
While developing the Education Sector Strategic Plan-ESSP, the consultant (s) should adhere to the following fundamental principles and working modalities: –
The MoE & HE will establish a working modality structured towards enhancing participation of the different actors in the process of developing the ESSP for 2022 -2026. The consultant shall support the MoE & HE in the process of consultation and the participatory process. The participatory process shall involve a wide range of actors, and needs to be supported by clarity on the roles and responsibilities of these actors, especially the actors who lead and coordinate the action. Towards this the following structures will be established, roles and responsibilities defined.
In collaboration with the development partners the MoE & HE shall make sure that these structures are established, have defined clear roles and responsibilities, the respective committee and working groups are functional, and their works are periodically reviewed, and provided with adequate feedbacks.
The assignment will take place over the months of March-November, 2021 with following tentative deadlines:
|1||Development of the Education Sector Analysis||Puntland ESA||March-June, 2021|
|2||Development of the Education Sector Strategic Plan-ESSP (2022-2026)||Puntland Five-Years Education Sector Strategic Plan-ESSP (2022-2026)||July-Nov 2021|
8. CONSULTANT REQUIREMENTS
The budget prepared by the bidder should cover all the activities relevant for the preparation, design and facilitation of the ESA as well as the development of the ESSP 2022 – 2026. This budget should be inclusive of all costs travel, accommodation and any other costs associated with the completion of the work including where required costs for reasonable adjustment.
All applications should be sent to SOM.Consultant@care.org latest by1700 Hours (GMT +3) 5-March-2021 in one email, with separate attachments for the technical and financial proposals in pdf and a Subject line “Consultancy to support MoEHE in the preparation of Puntland Education Sector Analysis (ESA) and the development of a Five-Years Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP 2022-2026)”.